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Exploring the pallet template

We will spend most of our time in the pallets/connect folder in the next modules. Upon opening it, there are a few items of interest, mostly with testing, as well as the actual source code of the pallet. Again, as mentioned in the last section of this module, this is just a Rust crate that uses FRAME to generate and implement certain traits and structures to be compatible with the runtime.

Our pallet, called pallet-connect, defines our custom logic that is then enabled by our runtime within the node template. defines the entry point for the pallet. It contains all the core logic - extrinsics, events, and errors, are all defined by a single struct:

pub struct Pallet<T>(_);

We will go into more detail on the structure of later but know for now that this makes a FRAME pallet at the most basic level. Pallets, just like this one, are later imported as a crate to the runtime, where the aforementioned construct_runtime! macro is responsible for defining and constructing a runtime based on the collection of pallets and their respective configurations. and

In most pallets, including our template, you will also see the following files: and As one may assume, they are used for two purposes:

  • is used for configuring a test environment, i.e., a test runtime configured for unit testing.
  • is where unit tests reside and act on the values and configuration defined within and

Benchmarking and weights measure an extrinsic's performance, or weight. Substrate is built around the concept of weight, which measures how much computation is required to execute it on-chain. Using benchmarking, weight can be assigned to each extrinsic, and the file is generated. Often, this weight corresponds to how much a user will pay to execute that state change. Weights also ensure that the transactions within a block can be executed successfully within the block production time window.

Although these two won't be covered in this course in-depth at a technical level, they are both crucial concepts to learn if one wishes to create a production-grade pallet.